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Archive for the ‘Environment’ Category

Purified recycled water…it’s perfectly clear

Posted by George J Janczyn on May 29, 2012

Here’s a nicely done educational/promotional video (just over 5 minutes) from the San Diego County Water Authority with the collaboration of the Escondido Water District, Helix Water District, Padre Dam Municipal Water District, and the City of San Diego.

These agencies are working hard to take advantage of purified recycled water to reduce our dependence on imported water, create the potential to improve the quality of the raw supplies now imported, reduce the amount of wastewater discarded into the ocean, and ultimately reduce the cost of water relative to imported water.

(if you’re a GrokSurf email subscriber, the video may not run in your mail program. In that case, just click on the title of the post to go to the web version)


Posted in Environment, Indirect potable reuse, Purified recycled water, Videos, Water | 6 Comments »

Advances in water recycling approved by San Diego City Council NR&C Committee

Posted by George J Janczyn on May 24, 2012

The San Diego City Council Natural Resources and Culture Committee (NR&C) approved on Wednesday (May 23) two substantial reports that recommend how recycled water can be used more effectively in the future as San Diego struggles with ways to reduce its extreme dependence on imported water that is becoming an increasingly expensive and less reliable source [link to the agenda].

According to the Recycled Water Master Plan, its purpose “is to evaluate opportunities to maximize non-potable reuse [of recycled water treated to tertiary standards] if IPR (Indirect Potable Reuse) projects are not pursued” [emphasis in italics is mine].

IPR refers to a series of advanced treatment processes applied to the tertiary water that results in purified water that is in essence distilled water and then to store that water in an underground aquifer or to blend it with imported raw water in an above-surface reservoir.

Nonpotable recycled water, of course, is limited to use in specific agricultural, irrigation, and certain industrial settings. A separate pipeline infrastructure must be built to deliver that water (“purple pipe water”), and you definitely can’t drink it.

This blog post, therefore, focuses on the subject of the companion to the Recycled Water Master Plan, the City of San Diego’s Recycled Water Study.

After considering a number of options, the Recycled Water Study mainly examined two possible ways IPR projects can be pursued in San Diego: 1) use IPR water to recharge groundwater resources, or 2) mix it with imported water that is piped into and stored in local reservoirs (sometimes referred to as “reservoir augmentation”). IPR, as you probably know, results in water that is of higher quality than the water we import from the Colorado River and Northern California and it can be used for any purpose, including for drinking, and delivered using our existing potable water infrastructure.

Another option examined in the Recycled Water Study, Direct Potable Reuse (DPR)–which would deliver the purified recycled water directly into the water distribution system instead of mixing it with imported reservoir water—has not been well-studied and would be difficult to implement without the development of new statewide regulations, so the study concludes it is not on the table for the near future in San Diego.

The Recycled Water Study envisions that continuous increases in the price of imported water along with decreased reliability and availability of imported supplies will soon make the relatively expensive IPR process competitive with imported prices (it’s already competitive with, if not cheaper than, the cost of desalinated water)…and will eventually be dramatically less expensive than imported supplies.

The Recycled Water Study was the outgrowth of an agreement between San Diego Coastkeeper, the San Diego Chapter of the Surfrider Foundation, and the City of San Diego, whereby the environmental groups agreed not to oppose the EPA’s Regional Water Board’s, and Coastal Commisssion’s approval of San Diego’s Clean Water Act waiver that allows the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant to continue discharging into the ocean the sewage receiving only Advanced Primary instead of Secondary treatment. The waiver expires in 2015, with an application due a year before expiration, so time is of the essence.

If San Diego chooses not to pursue upgrades to the Point Loma treatment plant to full Secondary treatment standards before the expiration of the current waiver, there is widespread speculation that the governmental agencies are not likely to renew the waiver and the city could face huge financial penalties AND be faced with a full upgrade to the treatment plant.

Upgrading Point Loma to Secondary treatment at its current load would be exceedingly expensive partly because of the large wastewater flow it receives and partly because there’s little room to expand on the limited hillside space it occupies facing the ocean along Point Loma’s western slope.

So…the Recycled Water Study envisions that if enough water is recycled, particularly via the advanced IPR treatment process, a good deal less wastewater would be sent to Point Loma. Point Loma then would be burdened with treating less wastewater and it would be much less expensive to upgrade to Secondary treatment standards. In that scenario, the city could even apply for federal financial assistance to upgrade Point Loma to Secondary treatment. If nothing is done and the waiver expires, the city would face large fines, be forced to upgrade to Secondary treatment at greater ratepayer expense and would not be eligible for federal financial assistance.

The Recycled Water Study concludes that groundwater recharge opportunities are extremely limited given San Diego’s geography. As such, using IPR water for reservoir augmentation is the most realistic option for San Diego to incorporate purified recycled water into its its potable water portfolio.

(the above photos show a portion of the advanced treatment facility being used for the Water Purification Demonstration Project. Click to enlarge)

Therefore, a Water Purification Demonstration Project examining the feasibility of using the IPR process focusing on reservoir augmentation by the City of San Diego is currently underway. A prototype advanced treatment facility at the North City Water Reclamation Plant is producing a limited amount of IPR water while a parallel scientific study is being conducted on the feasibility of blending IPR water with imported water in the San Vicente Reservoir.

When the Demonstration Project is completed, a number of unfinished regulations and guidelines addressing IPR must be approved by federal, state, and local agencies before San Diego can implement IPR reservoir augmentation on a large scale.

One problem with the NR&C vote on Wednesday, though, is that the committee simply “approved” both reports to advance to the City Council. The motion to approve both plans made no recommendation as to which plan to implement; that is, whether to commit to nonpotable recycling in the future, or recommend a combination of nonpotable recycling and IPR projects.

This decision tree from the Recycled Water Master Plan illustrates the issue:

There was, however, some indication of the direction towards which the committee leans on this question.

During discussion before the vote, Councilmember Sherri Lightner appeared to favor developing a balanced plan, incorporating nonpotable and potable recycled water, especially since a significant amount of nonpotable water infrastructure already exists and there are contracts and plans already in place to expand that form of recycled water use.

Another issue is that the Recycled Water Study raises the possibility of a much larger capacity facility to produce the advanced treatment product water (or several new satellite IPR facilities) to achieve a goal of producing as much as 100 million gallons per day (GPD) of IPR water, and it implies that because the San Vicente Dam Raise Project will more than double the capacity of the reservoir, there would be capacity to handle it.

That raised a question in my mind, which I decided to ask during the public comment portion of the NR&C meeting: the fact being that the County Water Authority (CWA) is building the San Vicente Dam raise and it will own the rights to the additional capacity. Would CWA buy IPR water from the city or fill it with imported water? And if all the water in the reservoir will be mixed, would it then be delivered to all the CWA member water agencies…and would they be agreeable? I also suggested that due to the close proximity of El Capitan Reservoir (currently San Diego’s largest), why not consider using both San Vicente and El Capitan as receiving reservoirs for IPR water?

Later, during committee discussion, Councilmember and committee chair David Alvarez asked PUD staff about that. Assistant PUD Director Marsi Steirer allowed that San Diego would only be adding IPR water to the portion of the reservoir capacity that the city owns…and that if the city eventually did produce up to 100 mgd of IPR water, its portion of San Vicente reservoir could consist entirely of IPR water. My question regarding El Capitan was not addressed at that time, but I’ve since learned it was a point of discussion during production of the report.

Ms. Steirer later sent me email addressing that question. With her permission, I’m reprinting a portion of her reply here:

There are two principle reasons El Capitan Reservoir is not as good a choice for reservoir augmentation as San Vicente Reservoir: storage volume and distance.

Storage volume
The greatest value – the best use – of El Capitan Reservoir is to capture local runoff. The El Capitan Catchment [the land area that drains to the reservoir] generates the greatest amount of runoff of any reservoir in the San Diego region. In our region rainfall and runoff are highly variable. Much of El Capitan’s runoff occurs in the occasional high rainfall year; something like two years per decade have abundant runoff and the reservoir fills up. We then store this runoff water for use over several years. For this reason, our operational scheme for El Capitan is to keep storage space available in the reservoir in anticipation of high runoff years. The average runoff to El Capitan is 28,000 AFY.

San Vicente Reservoir, on the other hand, is primarily filled with imported water. The San Vicente Catchment does not generate much runoff. The average runoff to San Vicente is 4,000 AFY.

Basically, we keep San Vicente full with imported water and El Capitan relatively empty to capture local runoff.

[Note that in recent years – starting in 2008 and extending to 2018 – El Capitan has been more full than typical. San Vicente has been drawn down to facilitate construction of the new dam. We have compensated by storing more imported water at El Capitan. When San Vicente is completed and refilled, we will return to the typical operation at El Capitan.]

So, while El Capitan has a large total capacity [113,000 AF] the amount of water typically stored there is relatively small. The average long-term storage in El Capitan is about 40,000 AF. Compare this to the average storage in the future expanded San Vicente of about 180,000 AF.

San Vicente is a better choice for reservoir augmentation simply because it is larger. El Capitan, because it stores a smaller volume, does not offer the same level of retention, blending, and response time.

Constructing a pipeline to carry IPR water to El Capitan would be a difficult and costly endeavor. Conveying IPR water from North City to El Capitan would require eight to twelve miles of additional pipeline, and it would necessarily route through difficult terrain and environmentally sensitive areas.

But El Capitan isn’t entirely out of the question: Ms. Steirer also pointed out that the San Diego Reservoir Intertie Study although currently on hold due to U.S. funding constraints, includes plans to consider a connection between San Vicente and El Capitan. The conclusion, she says, is “if an intertie were established either directly or indirectly between San Vicente and El Capitan, we assume that it could accommodate a larger capacity IPR/RA project.”

Councilmember Alavarez also commented that he believes that IPR is 100% the only solution he believes will work to solve the issue of increasing local water supply and reliability, as well as dealing with the Point Loma plant upgrade.

It’s not certain when this item will be docketed for the full City Council, but a condition of the Coastal Commisssion’s approval of the last waiver was that the Study be presented in approximately two years, and that deadline is fast approaching. The City is also pressured to act quickly, because even if the Demonstration Project concludes successfully and the city promptly moves to develop a large-scale IPR operation, it certainly won’t be finished, and most likely construction wouldn’t even be started, by 2015. Therefore, the only way for the City to be assured it will qualify for one or more additional waivers would be to get an approval and timeline in place to implement a significant amount of IPR, and thus justify the delay in upgrading the Point Loma treatment plant.


Related local news reports:


Posted in Environment, Water, Water Purification Demonstration Project | Tagged: , , , | 3 Comments »

San Diego gets “B” grades from ASCE on its water and wastewater infrastructure

Posted by George J Janczyn on May 15, 2012

I recently came across a news release (New Report Shows San Diego’s Infrastructure Needs Attention) from the San Diego Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) announcing an updated 2012 San Diego County Infrastructure Report Card evaluating a wide variety of regional infrastructure topics including valuable perspective where water matters are concerned.

Although San Diego’s County’s overall grade declined slightly from ASCE’s 2005 report card, the water and wastewater grades have shown some improvement with two Bs and a B+.

The chart on the right compares the grades between the 2005 and 2012 reports:

To produce the report, the ASCE Report Card Team assembled 11 working teams of over 100 expert engineers from the public and private sector to spend a year assessing San Diego’s infrastructure in a variety of categories: aviation, bridges, land and sea ports of entry, levees/flood control/urban drainage, parks/recreation/environment, K-12 school facilities, solid waste, surface transportation, wastewater/collection system, wastewater/treatment, and water.

San Diego’s management of water and wastewater (and associated costs) has been a growing topic of public and political discussion lately, especially as the election season progresses. One mayoral candidate in particular has continuously criticized the Public Utilities Department and reportedly would like to see the entire operation privatized. The County Water Authority’s lawsuit against the Metropolitan Water District on water prices, developments in the Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) lawsuit, and Councilmember Lightner’s recently adopted new water policy for the city are other examples of topics that have been regularly in the news, although often in a sensational way.

Objective, non-political information has been difficult to find. The ASCE Report Card helps put lots of these issues in sober perspective.

Following the break are report summaries for each grade given, followed by excerpts from the more detailed discussion further in the report.

Read the rest of this entry »

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San Diego separate storm sewer system workshop April 25

Posted by George J Janczyn on April 9, 2012

The San Diego Water Board is considering the development and adoption of a Regional Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Storm Water NPDES Permit (Regional MS4 Permit) that will be issued to municipal Copermittees in San Diego County, Southern Orange County and Riverside County. Currently, each of these counties within the San Diego Region has its own municipal storm water permit. In order to better achieve regulatory consistency as well as maximum efficiency and economy of resources, the San Diego Water Board developed a single Regional MS4 Permit based on the boundaries of the San Diego Region instead of county political boundaries. Under this approach, the permit will uniformly regulate all three counties within the San Diego Region.


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San Diego River Bend project draft EIR open for public comment

Posted by George J Janczyn on February 29, 2012

The City of San Diego has announced that the draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the San Diego River Bend project (aka the proposed Shawnee/CG7600 Master Plan redevelopment project) is now available for public review and comment. The deadline for comments is Monday, April 29.

The 22.88-acre project is located alongside the San Diego River in Grantville near the intersection of Mission Gorge Rd. and Old Cliffs Rd.

The project would redevelop the site with 996 multi-dwelling units, 27 single-dwelling units, 37,500 square feet of accessory commercial, a 2.57-acre population based park, 1.55 acres of open space, and associated infrastructure.

The EIR indicates the project would result in significant but mitigable impacts with land use, biological resources, historical resources, noise, and paleontological resources.

Project impacts to air quality, hydrology, water quality, and other areas of concern were determined to be less than significant.

The EIR also found the project would result in significant unmitigated impacts related to transportation/circulation and parking. In particular, it states that “eight street segments and five intersections are anticipated to operate at an unacceptable level of service under the Year 2030 without Project condition….” Although the report allows that those conditions might ultimately be mitigated through construction of the Santo Road and Tierrasanta Blvd. connections, “there is no way to assure these connections would be constructed…”

The draft EIR is available on the city’s website here and Appendices can be found here.

Additional information about the project can be found at these websites:


Posted in Environment, Land use, Navajo Community, Water | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

San Diego’s indirect potable reuse proposal without the hype

Posted by George J Janczyn on February 27, 2012

The City of San Diego is studying the feasibility of using purified recycled water to bolster its reservoir supply through its Water Purification Demonstration Project (originally called the Indirect Potable Reuse Reservoir Augmentation Demonstration Project).

Potable reuse has been a controversial and emotional topic in San Diego’s quest for new water resources. Provocative stands by certain politicians and pejorative headlines in some news media obscure a key underlying fact: for San Diego the real issue is unplanned vs. planned indirect potable reuse.

San Diego imports about 80% of its water from Northern California and the Colorado River. Imported water from these sources contains treated wastewater from over 345 municipal wastewater facilities [citation] — and when we get it, it only gets standard water treatment before delivery to customers. This is called unplanned indirect potable reuse. We’ve been doing it all along.

By contrast, under San Diego’s planned indirect potable reuse proposal, recycled water (aka treated wastewater) would subsequently go through a multi-staged advanced purification process rendering it similar in quality to distilled water. The purified water would be blended with our imported raw water in the San Vicente Reservoir. So, in fact we would actually improve the overall quality of the imported water before it goes to the final water treatment plant.

The goal, if the demonstration project is successful, is to produce 16 million gallons per day via the potable reuse process. That’s 16 million gallons per day less in imported water purchases, and 16 million gallons per day less in wastewater discharge into the ocean.

The Demonstration Project is also performing a limnology study to determine the reservoir mixing and dilution dynamics associated with adding the purified recycled water.

Over the last year the City of San Diego has been conducting educational presentations and guided tours of the advanced purification facility. The Water Reliability Coalition, a broad-based coalition of community organizations and groups has formed to further educate the public about potable reuse in San Diego. Polls indicate growing public acceptance of the process.


Reprinted from a page in the Topical Guide section of this blog. That page includes the latest news reports on the subject and a selected bibliography on potable reuse and related topics.


Posted in Environment, Indirect potable reuse, Water, Water Purification Demonstration Project | 8 Comments »

Equinox Center releases new “Regional Quality of Life Dashboard”

Posted by George J Janczyn on February 3, 2012

San Diego’s non-profit Equinox Center (actually it’s located in Encinitas) has published a new 2012 report Regional Quality of Life Dashboard on its website.

The Dashboard front page (which also has reports for 2010 and 2011) states that it aims to

“…shine a spotlight on the questions that truly matter to San Diegans: Are we leaving our children a heritage of thriving, rejuvenating nature? Will our businesses have access to resources such as energy and water so they can provide economic opportunities to all of the region’s inhabitants? Do we have efficient and adequate transportation options? Simply, is our quality of life improving?”

As you can see, a variety of relevant topics are addressed in the dashboard. You have the choice of clicking a specific topic from the left-hand sidebar or you can download the entire report as a PDF (clicking the above image will take you to the main Dashboard page).

Each topic is organized into four units, with the headings asking:

  1. What is the measure?
  2. How are we doing?
  3. Why is it important?
  4. How can we improve?

In the unit on water, here’s a map from the “How are we doing?” section. The map portrays each water district in the county in shades of green, with dark green indicating the highest water consumption (clicking the image will display the version on the Equinox website).

In addition to the Dashboard reports, the Equinox Center website is well-worth exploring for reports on other research it has conducted. One that is quite revealing is the 2010 report San Diego’s Water Resources: Assessing the Options. It drew quite a bit of attention from community leaders and activists. For my summary of that report please click here.


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San Diego Water Reliability Coalition launches website

Posted by George J Janczyn on September 14, 2011

The Water Reliability Coalition (or WRC), an association of San Diego County environmental, technical, business, and ratepayer organizations formed to perform public outreach in support of Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR) research and development announced yesterday the launch of its new website at

When WRC came together in late 2009 as the Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR) Coalition, the City of San Diego was embarking on its Indirect Potable Reuse Reservoir Augmentation Demonstration Project (IPR/RA Demonstration Project). Lani Lutar (San Diego County Taxpayers Association) and Bruce Reznik (at the time at San Diego Coastkeeper) were instrumental in organizing the coalition. Lutar is still at it, and Gabe Solmer is the new leader from Coastkeeper.

In March 2010 the Coalition received a special recognition award from the California WateReuse Association for its efforts.

The Coalition believes that potable reuse shows great potential as a component of San Diego’s water supply strategy because it represents a steady reliable source of high-quality potable water and has the environmental benefit of reducing the amount of wastewater dumped into the Pacific, among other reasons.

In early 2010 San Diego began to publicize its IPR project as the Water Purification Demonstration Project partly to simplify saying the name and partly to get some distance from lingering impressions caused by negative politics and press during IPR initiatives in 2007 and earlier (the original name is still used for internal documentation and official Council business).

Consequently, the IPR Coalition changed its name to the Water Reliability Coalition in September 2010, partly in response to the City’s project name change and partly because the name echoes sentiment behind a long-time San Diego goal to improve supply reliability by reducing its 80% dependence on water imports. The Coalition then decided to build a website, not an easy task with numerous coalition members with other priorities and economic challenges to deal with. It took a bit longer than they hoped, but it’s here now. It’s good to see it up.

(see also this writeup about the Coalition from Bradley Fikes at the North County Times)


Posted in Environment, Indirect potable reuse, Potable reuse, Water | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Helix Water District may close the tap on the El Monte Valley Project

Posted by George J Janczyn on September 4, 2011

This Wednesday September 7 the Helix Water District Board of Directors will consider a staff recommendation to suspend the El Monte Valley Project. The project is a groundwater recharge and recovery operation that would generate 5,000 acre feet of water per year using an advanced recycled water purification process known to water professionals as Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR).

The eastern part of El Monte Valley. El Capitan reservoir and dam are around the bend to the right. The greenery heading down the valley marks the course of the San Diego River. The valley grows considerably wider with distance from the reservoir.

The purification process for potable reuse includes micro-filtration, reverse osmosis, and UV disinfection. San Diego is also developing an IPR project through the Water Purification Demonstration Project at the North City Water Reclamation Plant.

The Helix project has (or had) a lot going for it.

Whereas Helix currently meets 3.3% of its demand for water from local resources, the project would increase that figure to 15%. For all practical purposes, it would create a permanent drought-proof water supply for 15,000 families according to the project’s FAQ — and there would be a corresponding decrease in imported water purchases. Wastewater discharges to the Pacific Ocean would also be reduced.

Another project component would be to mine about 12 million tons of sand from the valley over a 10-year period and sell it to to help fund the project. Much of the sand was deposited by the San Diego River which flows through El Monte Valley west of El Capitan Reservoir. The sand would help ease local shortages of Portland Cement Grade Sand. Upon completion of the mining, the valley would be recontoured and reclamation/restoration plans would be implemented for habitat and recreation purposes.

The staff recommendation to suspend the project (initiated by all four district staff directors and signed off on by General Manager Mark Weston) must have been difficult to decide after the considerable time and resources invested, not the least being preparation of the Environmental Impact Report (EIR) that has been underway for more than a year. Still, to put it simply, the project conditions have changed so much that it no longer seems feasible.

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San Vicente Dam will soon begin rising for real

Posted by George J Janczyn on August 30, 2011

Prepping the dam's face with water blasting to ensure a good surface for the new concrete (photo taken March 2010).

It has been two years since groundbreaking for the San Vicente Dam Raise Project took place, but the dam is still at its original height.

Everything is going according to plan, though, and right on schedule.

All this time has been devoted to prepping the dam and foundation, setting up the quarry where the ingredients for the concrete will be mined, constructing a new access road to the future new marina, and building a small “saddle dam” (because the eventual higher water level will reach a saddle-shaped depression in the hills on the reservoir’s west side).

San Vicente Dam is currently 220 feet tall and when completed, will be 117 feet taller, increasing the reservoir’s capacity from 90,000 acre-feet to 242,000 acre-feet. Although the larger capacity is billed as being enough to supply 300,000 households, the expansion is not really to accommodate additional customers from growth and development as might be implied by that statement.

Because around 80% of San Diego’s water must be imported it could be disastrous if something happened to cut off that supply. Our water managers take that risk very seriously. The real point of expanding the reservoir, therefore, is to have more water stored locally for use if something (like an earthquake) breaks the imported water infrastructure and repairs take months to complete. A secondary reason is to provide carryover storage to be used during extra dry years.

Reservoir level drawn down during construction. Large cleared area on left is site of quarry mining operations (photo from August 2010).

While the City of San Diego owns and operates San Vicente Dam and reservoir, the dam raise project is actually being managed and paid for by the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) which will also own the rights to the additional water. The dam raise is one of several projects SDCWA is doing as part of its countywide Emergency Storage Project.

Work on the saddle dam was recently halted halfway at about the 20 foot mark (again, as planned) because the conveyor system that will deliver concrete from the quarry and concrete mixing operation to the big dam needs to go through that space. The conveyor will cross right over the top of the half-finished saddle dam. After the main dam raise is completed, the conveyor will be dismantled and work on the saddle dam will resume to bring it up to its full height.

Since the precisely formulated concrete will be delivered by conveyor instead of trucks it will minimize contamination from soil and other material. By mining the aggregate for the concrete from the hills next to the reservoir and producing the concrete on site instead of another location, residents living in the vicinity will be spared the dust, noise, and traffic impact that thousands of truck trips would otherwise cause.

Concrete will not be made and poured into forms the traditional way; rather, a technique known as “roller compacted concrete” (RCC) will be used. SDCWA already used this method to build the Olivenhain Dam in northern San Diego County. As explained in the above-linked story about Olivenhain, “Roller-compacted concrete is similar to traditional concrete, but is less expensive, requires less water and is much thicker when placed…Roller-compacted concrete is placed in layers. The layers are compacted with rollers similar to those used in road building. Interruption of work must be minimised to facilitate bonding of the layers. Therefore, crews worked 24 hours a day, seven days a week during a 10-12 month period to construct the dam.”

Similarly, once concrete placement begins at San Vicente Dam (probably in mid-September), work will be non-stop 24/7 until the dam is finished. The dam will rise at the rate of about one foot per day. When I asked about viewing opportunities to see the dam as it goes up, SDCWA Senior Public Affairs Representative Gina Molise told me there’s a possibility that they’ll set up a camera overlooking the job to capture time-lapse images. However, that’s only a possibility at this time.

The project schedule and more information can be found at SDCWA’s project web page.

A few weeks ago SDCWA invited the news media to a photo opportunity of work underway on the saddle dam. I was invited too :-) so I get to share some photos. Click images for enlargements (it makes a big difference with some of them).

About half of the dam can be seen in this view from a nearby hillside.


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